(Nazi Party, full name National Socialist German Workers’ Party; Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), a fascist party that existed from 1919 to 1945 and reflected the interests of the most reactionary and aggressive circles of the German monopoly bourgeoisie; the terms “Nazis” and “Nazism” are abbreviations derived from the German word Nationalsozialistische
The Nazi Party was founded in Munich, which remained its headquarters. In 1921, A. Hitler became the Führer (leader) of the party. The Nazi Party stood for antidemocracy, extreme anticommunism, chauvinism, and racism, and it indulged in unrestrained demagogy. To fan revanchism, the party appealed to the national feeling of Germans, many of whom were dissatisfied with the terms of the Versailles Peace Treaty of 1919. It attracted déclassé elements, the petite bourgeoisie, retired officers, office employees, and people of peasant descent. Taking advantage of anticapitalist attitudes in the country, the Nazi Party in 1920 adopted a demagogic 25-point program, which included the nationalization of cartels, the abolition of “interest slavery”—that is, the dependence of small property owners on banks—and agrarian reforms. Large monopolists such as Thyssen and Kirdorf provided funds for propaganda and for the maintenance of paramilitary detachments.